by Jeanette K. B. Daniels, AG, CGRS, Marietta Glauser,
The last mention of Harriet Hemings, in Thomas Jefferson’s Farm Book, is the notation by her name “ran 22,”47 indicating that she “ran away” in 1822. In an interview, Edmund Bacon reports that,
Cautions, Anomalies, and Conclusions
One of our most referenced books was Thomas Jefferson’s Farm Book, edited by Betts.(51) The first 178 pages of the book are photocopied pages from Jefferson’s original book. We noted an anomaly that bears mention here. In the ”Register of Births,” on page 31, appears a record of children born to Jefferson’s slaves. Listed under the year 1790, several entries have been erased or scraped away. Of the last several letters, all that remains after the “removal” of the third entry in the males column (entry #85) is one syllable—either an “ly’s” or a “by’s.” On other pages Jefferson has merely drawn a line through mistakes. Why were these entries removed, when, and by whom? Is it significant that this would have been the year that Sally gave birth to a child possibly conceived in France? Is this simply verification of Madison’s statement that Sally “gave birth to a child . . .it lived but a short time,”52 and had the name been removed when the child died? These entries could bear further study, using the original page, so that no questions remain.
However, the game is still afoot . . .
1. The BCG Genealogical Standards Manual, Board for Certification of Genealogists (Orem, Utah: Ancestry Publishing, 2000), 9.
2. Eugene A. Foster, et al., “Jefferson Fathered Slave’s Last Child,” Nature 396 (November 5, 1998): 27, 28.
3. E. H. Jefferson listed in the 1855 Madison, Wisconsin directory, and in the Forest Hills Cemetery, online, www.ci.madison.wi.us/parks/thomas_jefferson__forest_hill_ce.htm; www.monticello.org/plantation/appendixh.html. Also, Eston’s son, John W. Jefferson, is listed in the 1860 U.S. Census, 2nd Ward, City of Madison, Dane County, Wisconsin, Population Schedule, p. 505, dwelling 248, family 256, line 24.
4. “Reply: The Thomas Jefferson Paternity Case,” Nature 397 (January 7, 1999): 32.
5. Thomas Jefferson (1677 to 1731) was the grandfather of President Thomas Jefferson. He only had two sons that lived to adulthood and married: Field and Peter. President Thomas Jefferson and his brother, Randolph, were sons of Peter Jefferson.
6. “The Possible Paternity of Other Jeffersons,” Report of the Research Committee on Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings, online, www.monticello.org/plantation/dnareport5.html, downloaded 8 April 2002.
7. Edwin Morris Betts, ed., Thomas Jefferson’s Farm Book, With Commentary and Relevant Extracts from Other Writings (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1953).
8. Several sources have listed the birth dates of Randolph’s children as being much earlier. Randolph had a daughter born about 1782/83. The boys appear to have been born after her.
9. Virginia Research Outline, (Salt Lake City: Family History Library).
10. N. R. Murray, Albemarle County, VA Marriages (Hammond, LA, 1986), 145.
11. 1830 to 1860 U.S. Censuses of Albemarle County, Virginia were searched to determine the birth dates of Randolph’s children.
12. John Vogt, Fluvanna County Marriages 1781 to 1849 (Athens, GA: Iberian Press, 1984), 29.
13. N. R. Murray, op cit, 145.
14. Tax list, Albemarle Co., Virginia, 1801to 1813, film 202444 (Salt Lake City: Family History Library).
15. Letter, Thomas Jefferson to Randolph Jefferson, 11 January 1789; in Thomas Jefferson and his Unknown Brother Randolph, Tracy J. McGregor Library (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1942) 13.
16. Isham R. Jefferson household, 1830 U.S. Census, Fluvanna Co., Virginia, p. 353, line 19; National Archives Microfilm Publication M19, roll 195.
17. John Vogt, op cit, 29.
18. Robert L. Jefferson household, 1850 U.S. Census, Albemarle Co., Virginia, Population Schedule, p. 283, dwelling 1853, family 1853; National Archives Microfilm Publication M432, roll 932.
19. N. R. Murray, op cit, 145.
20. Tax List, Nelson Co., Virginia, 1809 to 1845, film 1870172, (Salt Lake City: Family History Library).
21. Randolph Jefferson household, 1810 U.S. Census, Buckingham Co., Virginia, p. 785; National Archives Microfilm Publication M252, roll 66.
22. There are no records indicating that Sally Hemings ever traveled to Randolph Jefferson’s plantation, with or without Thomas Jefferson.
23. Letter, Randolph Jefferson to Thomas Jefferson, 8 June 1810; in Thomas Jefferson and his Unknown Brother Randolph, Tracy J. McGregor Library (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1942) 17.
24. Letter, Randolph Jefferson to Thomas Jefferson, 6 Oct. 1811; ibid, 20.
25. Letter, Randolph Jefferson to Thomas Jefferson, 8 Feb. 1812; ibid, 22.
26. Letter, Randolph Jefferson to Thomas Jefferson, 24 Feb. 1813; ibid, 24.
27. Letter, Randolph Jefferson to Thomas Jefferson, 6 Oct. 1811; ibid, 20.
28. Letter, Thomas Jefferson to Randolph Jefferson, 12 Aug. 1807; ibid, 14.
29. J. H. Battle, ed., A History of Todd County Kentucky (Easley, SC: Southern Historical Press, 1979), 296.
30. Monticello was renovated while Thomas Jefferson was in Washington as the President, 1801 to 1809. According to census and tax records, Randolph Jefferson was living at his plantation and not away requiring his children to be raised by someone else. The 1810 Census shows Randolph’s children at home with him.
31. Thomas Jefferson Jr., a small baby at the time, was mentioned briefly in his Uncle Thomas Jefferson’s letter of January 11, 1789 to his brother, Randolph Jefferson.
32. Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Randolph Jefferson, 25 May 1813; ibid, 26.
33. Edwin Morris Betts and James Adam Bear, Jr., eds., The Family Letters of Thomas Jefferson, (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1986; original, 1966 University of Missouri Press).
34. Ibid, 232.
35. Richmond Recorder, Dec. 1802; printed in Durey, With the Hammer of Truth, 159.
36. Boston Repertory, 31 May 1805; printed in Woodson, op cit, 73.
37. Thomas Turner was a close acquaintance of David Meade Randolph, whose wife was a sister of Jefferson’s son in law, Thomas Mann Randolph. “Report of the Research Committee on Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings” (Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation, Jan. 2000).
38. Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1971) 4:222.
39. Letter, Thomas Jefferson to George Logan, 20 June 1816; quoted in Richard E. Dixon, “The Case Against Thomas Jefferson: A Trial Analysis of the Evidence on Paternity,” in Robert Eyler Coates, ed., The Jefferson and Hemings Myth (Jefferson Editions, 2001) 140.
40. Andrew Lipscomb and Albert Bergh, eds., The Writings of Thomas Jefferson (Washington, D.C.: Thomas Jefferson Memorial Association, 1903) 14:267; in Woodson, op cit, 70.
41. Frances Trollope, Domestic Manners of the Americans (London: Whittaker, Treacher and Co., 1832) 97 to 98; in Woodson, op cit, 110.
42. Duc de La Rochefoucauld, Liancourt, Travels through the United States of North America (London, 1799) 2:69, 77; in Merrill D. Peterson, ed., Visitors to Monticello (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1989) 30.
43. Original images, www.lib.virginia.edu/speccol/collections/tj/jhc.html.
45. Madison Hemings household, 1870 U.S. Census, Ross County, Ohio, Population Schedule, Huntington Twp., Chilicothe post office; p. 699, dwelling 49, family 49; National Archives Microfilm Publication M593, roll 1262.
46. “Jefferson’s Blood,” www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/jefferson.
47. Betts, op cit, 130.
48. James A. Bear, ed., Jefferson at Monticello (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1981) 102.
49. Pike County Republican, 1873.
50. Pearl M. Graham, “Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings,” Journal of Negro History, 46, no. 2 (April 1961): 89, 103.
51. Betts, op cit, 30, 31.
52. 1873, op cit.
53. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, The Valley of Fear, from www.yoak.com/sherlock/stories /valley_fear/valley_of_fear.txt.
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