county line - border or boundary of the county

county seat - the town housing the administration of the county

court journal - the daily record of court proceedings

court martial - a military judicial court exercising jurisdiction over military or navel offenders, and administration of martial law

court minute books - a daily record of court proceedings of matters that came before the particular court.  Some are indexed, primarily the latter ones, but are very worthwhile to genealogist since a variety of matters are covered and many persons will be found named herein that are not found in other records

Court of Common Pleas - a court in some states dealing with actions brought by one individual against another in civil matters

Court of the Ordinary - a probate court in some states having jurisdiction over the probate of wills, administrations and the managements of estates

Court of Probate - a court having jurisdiction over the probating of wills, of the administration of estates and the management of estate property; so called in some states

Court of Quarter Sessions - a court hearing criminal actions, meeting once every three months; many of these were later changed to circuit courts.  Found in several states, including Kentucky and Pennsylvania

court records - i.e., records of the proceedings of any court, remain one of the most important and most neglected groups of records for genealogist, and are recommended highly for research

courtin' - courting, the paying of court or attention to a lady with the desire for marriage

cousin - the son or daughter of an uncle or aunt; a collateral relative.  A son or daughter of a great-uncle or great-aunt, i.e., of a brother or sister to one's grandparents, is called a second cousin, or a cousin once removed.  The term cousin is also used for any relative of less kin that a direct ancestor, by some or when the exact relationship is undetermined.  Hence the use of the term cousin does not necessarily mean the exact meaning

covenant - a mutual agreement between two or more persons to do or to refrain from doing certain acts, sometimes being an agreement of action by one person

covered bridge - a bridge with enclosed sides and roof, with the appearance of a building

coverlet - the uppermost covering of a bed, a  counterpane, a coverlid

coverlid - a woven bedspread, known also as coverlet or counterpane

coxswain - a petty officer having charge of a ship's boat and crew; helmsmen

cow common - a public commons in colonial times where pasture of animals was allowed

cracker - a booster, a liar; "poor white" in southern states

cracklings - a crisp skin or rind of roasted pork

cramp colic - an early term that usually referred to appendicitis

crampiron - a small metal bar with bent ends, to hold together two pieces of masonry; also a grappling hook

Credit Entry Final Certificate - the certificate given to land purchasers who have completed the payments on credit.  Between 1800-1820 most of land sold by the federal government was on a credit basis, at $2 per acre, with five years to pay for it

creed - a professed statement of religious belief, or a summery of such beliefs

creek - a branch of a main river, a tributary to a river, or a small stream

crew - a body of men organized or associated for a purpose, commonly referring to those of a ship

crew's list - the list or roster of a crew members which usually included a description of physical characteristics of the men and an abstract of their prior service

criminal - a person guilty of or convicted of a crime

criminal courts - those courts that hear cases involving violations of law

croft - a small piece of land used for farming or pasture, usually attached a house, and inclosed in some manner

cross-burning - the activity of setting up a large wooden cross, wrapped in rags and doused in an inflammable fuel, and setting afire as a warning to Negroes and those whites thought to be in sympathy with Negroes; usually in the south, and normally attributed to the Ku Klux Klan

cross-reference directory - a business directory usually published annually in larger cities, by private printing enterprises, in which telephone numbers of that city are listed in numerical order with identification of the person having that number.  Some contain also a list of persons living in rural areas surrounding that city, by road order, in opposition to city directories which list only the person living within the city limits

crossroads - any location where two roads met, usually with business establishments or other advantages

crossroads wedding - the custom of a marriage held at a crossroads, after dark, in which the bride wore only her shift, indicating thus she was not bringing any debts to the marriage

croup - an inflammatory disease of children, affecting the throat, and causing a sharp ringing cough and difficulty in breathing

cruller - a cake made from eggs, butter, sugar, etc., twisted or curled, and fried in lard

crypt - an underground chamber or vault, usually beneath a church, used for burials

C.S.A. - abbreviation for Confederate States of America

ct. - abbreviation for court

c. t. a. - abbreviation for cum testamento annexo

cuarenta - (Spanish) forty

cuatro - (Spanish) four

cull - to choose or select the better type from the inferior quality

cum onere - (Latin) subject to a lien or obligation of which the buyer is aware

cum testamento annexo - the administration of an estate, where will was made and attached, but no executor named, or the executor failed to qualify or refused to serve

Cumberland Gap - a mountain pass in the Cumberland Mountains, Claiborne Country, Tennessee, discovered in 1750 and used by emigrants in moving westward, including Daniel Boone in his trips to Kentucky

Cumberland Pass - see Cumberland Gap

curator - one who has charge of a museum or institution who powers and duties that of guarding, protecting and preserving a collection; also, a guardian of a minor or insane person

Cure - a parish priest in French-speaking country

cure-all - a remedy, usually a patent medicine, that is professed to cure all manner of diseases

curia - the papal court

curia Regis rolls - the minutes of court of the English king or queen

currency - money, as a medium of exchange, usually that currently being used in that country and in circulation

currier - one who dresses and colors leather after is has been tanned

curtesy - the life estate to which a man is entitled, upon his wife's death, in the lands she owned in own name, provided they had children born alive

curtillage - the enclosed space of ground and buildings around a dwelling, or the land used for family and domestic purpose

curtsey, curtsy - a bending the knees and lowering the body, made by a woman, to signify obedience or respect

custom - a way of doing, manner of acting, usual practice, which has by continuance acquired the force of a law or right

customs - a tax levied by the federal government upon goods being imported or exported

customs house - the house, office or building where customs are collected as a tax, and where inspection is made of incoming or outgoing goods to determine whether a tax should be levied

Customs Lists of Aliens - immigration records kept in compliance of an Act of Congress, by the Customs Bureau, but only lists are in existence of several ports in Massachusetts today

Customs Passenger List - ship's passenger-arrival lists, of immigrants

cutter - a small sleigh for one or two persons; a boat belonging to a warship and used for carrying goods or passengers by rowing or sailing

C.W. - abbreviation for Civil War

c.w.o. - an abbreviation for "cash with order"

cyanosis -blueness of the skin due to lack of oxygen

cypher - an early word meaning to work with numbers, i.e., arithmetic

cystitis - inflammation of the bladder; formation of a cyst in the bladder

d. abbreviation for deceased or died; also an abbreviation for English currency, the pence

D.A. - abbreviation for District Attorney

daguerreotype - an early photographic process in which the impression was taken on a silver plate sensitized by iodine and then developed with mercury; also a portrait taken by this process

dairy house - a barn or building in which dairying was the principal use

dandy - an elegantly and fashionably dressed man

dainty - an ice cream confection

D.A.R. - abbreviation of the historic patriotic organization, Daughters of the American Revolution

dau. - abbreviation for daughter

daughter-in-law - the wife of one's son.  Formerly referred to stepdaughter by some, an incorrect connotation

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