catorce - (Spanish) fourteen

cattle-drive - by which herds of cattle were driven to market, under their own power, controlled by men on horseback

cattle-plague - a highly contagious disease affecting cattle

cause - the case of one party in a lawsuit

cause number - the case number of a lawsuit as recorded chronologically

cavalry - the part or a military force consisting of soldiers mounted on horseback, or in rare occasions, other animals.  Note there was cavalry on camelback used for a short time in U. S. southwest

caveat - (Latin) "Let him beware"; a formal notice given to a court by a party of some interest, asking that action be suspended until he can be heard; used often as a protest and attack upon the validity of a will

cem. - abbreviation for cemetery

census - an official enumeration of the population, listing various information.  The first federal census in the U. S. was in 1790, which listed the heads of a household only, and the number of other persons in the household; in 1850 the names of all persons in the household were listed, and on subsequent censuses

census abstract - a statistical compilation of census data in summary form, listing individual households, as submitted to Washington

census assistant - the name for the local census taker, used prior to 1870

Census Bureau - the Bureau of the Census, the federal agency charged with the taking of the census, established 1902

census day - the day set by law for the decennial census to commence, and the day for which certain statistics were taken.  Up to 1820, the first Monday in August was designated thus; from 1830 to 1900, June 1st

census, federal - the census required by the constitution to be taken every ten years, for each state

census marshal - up to 1870, the census official who supervised the taking of the census in his own district

census schedule - a completed census questionnaire

census , state - a census conducted by a state for various reasons. Since many of these were not taken for the same year as the federal census, these can be valuable tools of research if they can be located

census year - the twelve-month period immediately preceding the census day, for which certain questions are asked.  Commenced use in 1850

cent - (French) hundred

centimeter - measure of length, being 1/100 of a meter, or approximately 2/5 of an inch

certificate - a written document by which a certain fact is certified.  Sometimes used to refer to title of land

certificate of membership - a written document verifying membership in a church, usually, or an organization

certificate of removal - a written document signifying removal to or arrival from another congregation of a church member in good standing

Certified American Lineage Specialist - a category of professional genealogists certified as to their ability by the Board for the Certification of Genealogists, Washington, D. C.

certified copy - copy of a document which is signed and sworn to by the official of the office in which the record is retained

Certified Genealogist - a category of professional genealogists certified as to their ability by the Board of Certification of Genealogists, Washington D.C.; abbreviated "C.G."

Certified Genealogical Record Searcher - professional genealogists certified as to their ability by the Board of Certification of Genealogists, Washington D. C.; abbreviated "C.G.R.S." or "GR.S."

certiorari - an order requesting a case record by a higher court to a lower court; also known as a writ of certiorari

cession - the act of giving away or yielding rights or property, or the vacating of an office by death or retirement

C.G. - abbreviation for Certified Genealogist

C.G.R.S.  - abbreviation for Certified Genealogical Record Searcher

C.H. - abbreviation for Court House

ch. - abbreviation for children

chain - a measuring line used in land surveying, consisting of one hundred links, total length 66 feet

chain carrier - an assistant to a surveyor

chain of transfer - a list of each transaction of the sale or transfer of land in chronological order

chalk box - a small box used in marking a straight line, by use of which a string is coated with calk powder, pulled out and stretched across the space in which a line is to be drawn, and then snapped to where it will flip against the surface leaving a line or mark of chalk

chambermaid - a servant or employee who works primarily in the bedrooms, cleaning and making the beds, changing linens, etc. in the home or an inn

chancellor - the tile of certain judges of courts of chancery or equity, in certain states

chancery or chancery court - a court of equity, or of record; in England, an ecclesiastical probate court

chancery records - record books keep by courts of equity, in civil cases

chandler - a candle maker, or soap seller; one who sells specific provision, as a ship's-chandler

change of venue - a legal procedure where by a court case is transferred to another locality in which it is thought there would be a more impartial trial

charnel house - a sepulcher, mausoleum, or other building in which the dead are buried

charter - a written document granting privileges, recognizing rights, or creating a borough or town; a grant; deed

charwomen - a women hired by the day to do odd jobs in the home

chastity belt - a belt placed on a woman and locked into place to assure chastity while the husband is absent

chattel - personal property, goods, animals, slaves

chattel mortgage - a bill of sale on personal property or animals that becomes null and void upon certain conditions, i.e, payment of money for example

cheraws - the Indians or the region along tributary of the Peedee River in the Carolinas

chickenpox - a contagious, epidemic, children's disease, with fever, and characterized by small red spots that change to pustules and then crusted sores

childbed fever - puerperal fever

chimney sweep - those hired to clean chimneys periodically, using brushes.  Some cities and laws which acted to fine a person for failure to keep the chimney clean, due to the likely hood of fire

chimney viewers - those who inspected a home owner's chimney periodically to make sure it was clean, in compliance with the law

chirugeon - a doctor who does surgery

chit - a signed note or card given in lieu of money, promising to pay later.  Utilized by troops in the field, particularly, who where in need of food or lodging

cholera - an infectious disease in which there was bilious diarrhea, vomiting, stomach-ache and cramps, rarely fatal to adults; another form, non-bilious, and of epidemic proportions, caused many deaths and was characterized by violent vomiting, severe cramps and sudden collapse

chr. - abbreviation for christened

christen - to give a name to an infant, often with baptism

Church of England - an Episcopal church

church mouse - supposedly a church that inhabited a church building, and was very quiet; hence the saying "quite as a church mouse"

church records - records recorded by the church, and retained, of births, marriages, deaths, and burials, and of baptism, of their members.  Also, list of members, and minutes

church warden - usually one or two of the laymen elected annually to assist the minister in parochial duties, and to act as the lay representative of the parish and church organization

churn - a container in which the cream or milk is agitated and shaken in the making of butter; also the act of so doing

ciento - (Spanish) one hundred

cinco - (Spanish) five

cincuenta - (Spanish) fifty

cinq - (French) five

cinquante -(French) fifty

cipher - ciphering, cypering - arithmetic

circa - about; abbreviated "ca"

circuit court - a court of probate in some states; at one presided over by judges that traveled between courts, in a circuit

circuit court of appeals - a federal appellate court, to hear appeals

circuit preacher - a minister who served in two or more church, or an area, moving from one to another to preform duties

circuit rider - see circuit preacher; so known due to the method of travel, usually on horseback

circumstantial evidence - evidence which is not necessarily valid, but seems cause of the circumstance.  Not admissible in court

cistern - an artificial or natural reservoir for water, usually underground.  Water from roofs, collected in a cistern was thought to be beneficial in which to wash one's hair

citation - a summons to a court of justice or the document containing the summons

citoyen - (French) citizen

city directory - books published for many cities which list annually the inhabitants of the city, in both alphabetical order and by street order.  These are published by private concerns as a business aid, but are invaluable to research.  For some cities, these have been published since the early 1800's

civil - pertaining to the private rights of citizens, as opposed to the criminal, political, or other categories

civil cases - lawsuits in which the private rights of citizens are of concern, rather than criminal cases

civil court - a court handling civil cases, rather than criminal cases, such as small claims, evictions, probate, etc

civil division - an area over which a local or state government has jurisdiction

civil law - laws pertaining to private rights and remedies of said citizen

ciudad -(Spanish) town or city

ciudadano - (Spanish) citizen

clabber - to curdle, as in milk, as in the process of making butter; also a card game

claim - public land on which a person has made application for settlement, or land which a settler has staked out and claims for his own, either by preemption or by settlement rights

clan - as in Scottish Clans, a number of persons claiming descent from a common ancestry and usually banded together in a form of tribe or group

clapboard - a long thin board, thinner on one edge, used to cover the outside of a house; also a small piece of split oak used in making barrel staves

clearance papers - documents issued by ports regarding the loading or unloading of goods from a ship; authority to load or unload

clerk - an officer who has charge of the records and correspondence of any court, department, or society and conducts the business of such

clipped coins - coins from which a small part was clipped or filed, of gold or silver, the purpose of which was to save or accumulate these chips of value; merchants at one time weighed coins to make sure this had not been done

clipper ship - a ship with sharp for-ward raking bows and masts raking aft, designed for speed and used for cargo

clk. - abbreviation for clerk

cloak - a loose outer garment worn over a persons other clothes, sometimes without arms

clobber - a black paste used to fill up cracks in the leather, used by cobblers, also, a slang term to indicate hitting someone

clod - a coarse person

clod-hopper - a plowman, or one who walks over plowed ground, usually indicating one of awkward, clumsy, manner

clogs - a wooden soled shoe; also a block of wood to which a man or animal is attached to prevent motion

close - an enclosed place about or besides a building; an entry or passage; a narrow tract of land

clyster - a medicine injected into the rectum as an enema

C.O. - abbreviation for commanding officer

Co. - abbreviation for county or company

co-administrator - one who acts in conjunction with another as administrator of an estate

coal oil - an early name for kerosene

coal oil lamp - a lamp used in the 1850's and since designed to burn kerosene, with metal or glass container for the fuel and a bulbous glass shade, sometimes with reflectors for increased light

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